Tag: Windows

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Microsoft Edge Windows Defender Application Guard

Enable Windows Defender Application Guard on Windows 10 using PowerShell

A couple of days back I saw a tweet form Stefan Stranger (Consultant at Microsoft) which reminded me of a feature called Windows Defender Application Guard, which is included in Windows 10 Enterprise since the Fall Creators Update (1709). If you have never heard of Application Guard, you might want to check out this blog post: Introducing Windows Defender Application Guard for Microsoft Edge

Basically Windows Defender Application Guard starts Microsoft Edge in a Hyper-V Container and uses Hyper-V isolation. So if a user browses on a malicious site, the site is separate from the host operating system.

Application Guard Hardware Isolation

What is Windows Defender Application Guard and how does it work?
Designed for Windows 10 and Microsoft Edge, Application Guard helps to isolate enterprise-defined untrusted sites, protecting your company while your employees browse the Internet. As an enterprise administrator, you define what is among trusted web sites, cloud resources, and internal networks. Everything not on your list is considered untrusted.

If an employee goes to an untrusted site through either Microsoft Edge or Internet Explorer, Microsoft Edge opens the site in an isolated Hyper-V-enabled container, which is separate from the host operating system. This container isolation means that if the untrusted site turns out to be malicious, the host PC is protected, and the attacker can’t get to your enterprise data. For example, this approach makes the isolated container anonymous, so an attacker can’t get to your employee’s enterprise credentials.

Source: Windows Defender Application Guard overview

Usually Windows Defender Application Guard is configured using a Enterprise devices management tool like System Center Configuration Manager, Microsoft Intune or another third-party tool. But if you want to use this on your standalone Windows 10 PC you can also do this using PowerShell.

The only thing you need to run this is:

  • Windows 10 Enterprise 1709 (Fall Creators Update) or higher
  • A computer which supports Hyper-V
    • A 64-bit computer with minimum 4 cores is required for hypervisor and virtualization-based security (VBS)
    • Extended page tables, also called Second Level Address Translation (SLAT)
    • One of the following virtualization extensions for VBS:
      • Intel VT-x
      • AMD-V
    • Microsoft recommends 8GB RAM for optimal performance
    • 5 GB free space, solid state disk (SSD) recommended
    • Input/Output Memory Management Unit (IOMMU) support is strongly recommended
  •  Microsoft Edge and Internet Explorer

Enable Windows Defender Application Guard using PowerShell

You can simply install Application Guard using the following command:

New Application Guard Windows in Microsoft Edge

This will reboot your computer and after this you will be able to open a new Microsoft Edge windows in Application Guard.

Microsoft Edge Windows Defender Application Guard

This does added some extra security, however it does not really protect against like the Meltdown and Spectre attacks.

Application Guard Virtual Machine Worker Process

If you have a look at the processes running on your computer you can now see that there is a new Virtual Machine Worker Process which is used by the Application Guard.

This is a great example how the Hyper-V isolation can not only be used for Hyper-V Virtual Machines but also other features like Hyper-V Containers or for example on the Xbox One.



PowerShell Core

PowerShell Core 6.0 for Windows, Linux and macOS General Available (GA)

Microsoft yesterday announced the general availability of PowerShell Core 6.0. PowerShell Core 6.0 is a new edition of PowerShell that is cross-platform (Windows, macOS, and Linux), open-source, and built for heterogeneous environments and the hybrid cloud. PowerShell Core uses .NET Core 2.0 as its runtime. PowerShell Core also exposes the API set offered by .NET Core 2.0 to be used in PowerShell cmdlets and scripts.

First and foremost, thank you to all of our amazing community, especially our open-source contributors (the most recent of which you can find on our community dashboard at https://aka.ms/PSGitHubBI) for donating your time and energy to PowerShell Core. Whether you contributed code, tests, documentation, issues, or even just your feedback and opinions, we are extremely grateful for the sweat and tears that you’ve invested in PowerShell. (For those interested in contributing, hop and over to our Contribution Guide on GitHub. You don’t have to be a guru to help out!)

Quote: PowerShell Team Blog: PowerShell Core 6.0: Generally Available (GA) and Supported!

PowerShell Core Installer

You can get PowerShell Core 6.0 here:

PowerShell Core is open source and you can have a look at the code on PowerShell on GitHub



Windows SpeculationControl PowerShell

Microsoft Guidance to protect against speculative execution side-channel vulnerabilities on Windows, Windows Server and Azure (Meltdown & Spectre)

Microsoft very quickly responded to the speculative execution side-channel vulnerabilities also called Meltdown and Spectre which affect many modern processors and operating systems, including chipsets from Intel, AMD, and ARM. Microsoft released some guidance how you should protect your devices against these vulnerabilities. The Microsoft Security Defense Team also published an article with guidance and more details on this: ADV180002 | Guidance to mitigate speculative execution side-channel vulnerabilities

In this blog post I tried to quickly summarize the information and link it to the right websites.

Summary

Microsoft is aware of detailed information that has been published about a new class of vulnerabilities referred to as speculative execution side-channel attacks. This industry-wide attack method takes advantage of out-of-order execution on many modern microprocessors and is not restricted to a single chip, hardware manufacturer, or software vendor. To be fully protected, updates are required at many layers of the computing stack and include software and hardware/firmware updates. Microsoft has collaborated closely with industry partners to develop and test mitigations to help provide protections for our customers. At the time of publication, Microsoft had not received any information to indicate that these vulnerabilities have been used to attack our customers.

Note This issue also affects other operating systems, such as Android, Chrome, iOS, and MacOS.

Warning

Microsoft addressed protect against speculative execution side-channel vulnerabilities in the latest Windows Updates. However, customers who only install the Windows January 2018 security updates will not receive the benefit of all known protections against the vulnerabilities. In addition to installing the January security updates, a processor microcode, or firmware, update is required. This should be available through your device manufacturer. Surface customers will receive a microcode update via Windows update.

Guidance for Windows Client

Customers should take the following actions to help protect against the vulnerabilities:

  1. Verify that you are running a supported antivirus application before you install OS or firmware updates. Contact the antivirus software vendor for compatibility information.
  2. Apply all available Windows operating system updates, including the January 2018 Windows security updates.
  3. Apply the applicable firmware update that is provided by the device manufacturer

Windows-based machines (physical or virtual) should install the Microsoft security updates that were released on January 3, 2018. See Microsoft Security Advisory ADV180002 for updates for the following versions of Windows.

Read full guidance for Windows Client here: Windows Client Guidance for IT Pros to protect against speculative execution side-channel vulnerabilities

Guidance for Windows Server

Customers should take the following actions to help protect against the vulnerabilities:

  1. Apply the Windows operating system update. For details on how to enable this update, see Microsoft Knowledge Base Article 4072699.
  2. Make necessary configuration changes to enable protection.
  3. Apply an applicable firmware update from the OEM device manufacturer.

Windows Servers-based machines (physical or virtual) should get the Windows security updates that were released on January 3, 2018, and are available from Windows Update.

  • Windows Server, version 1709 (Server Core Installation) KB4056892
  • Windows Server 2016 KB4056890
  • Windows Server 2012 R2 KB4056898
  • Windows Server 2012 Not available yet
  • Windows Server 2008 R2 KB4056897

Your server is at increased risk if it is in one of the following categories:

  • Hyper-V hosts
  • Remote Desktop Services Hosts (RDSH)
  • For physical hosts or virtual machines that are running untrusted code such as containers or untrusted extensions for database, untrusted web content or workloads that run code that is provided from external sources.

There for Microsoft posted some additional registry keys to mitigations on servers. Microsoft also added some extra registry keys if you are running older versions of Hyper-V.

Read the full guidance for Windows Server and the registry keys here: Windows Server guidance to protect against speculative execution side-channel vulnerabilities

Guidance for Virtual Machines running on Hyper-V

In addition to this guidance, the following steps are required to ensure that your virtual machines are protected from CVE-2017-5715 (branch target injection):

  1. Ensure guest virtual machines have access to the updated firmware. By default, virtual machines with a VM version below 8.0 will not have access to updated firmware capabilities required to mitigate CVE-2017-5715. Because VM version 8.0 is only available starting with Windows Server 2016, users of Windows Server 2012 R2 or earlier must modify a specific registry value on all machines in their cluster.
  2. Perform a cold boot of guest virtual machines.Virtual machines will not see the updated firmware capabilities until they go through a cold boot. This means the running VMs must completely power off before starting again. Rebooting from inside the guest operating system is not sufficient.
  3. Update the guest operating system as required. See guidance for Windows Server.

Read the full guidance for Guest Virtual Machines here: Protecting guest virtual machines from CVE-2017-5715 (branch target injection)

Guidance for Surface Devices

Microsoft will provide UEFI updates for the following devices:

  • Surface Pro 3
  • Surface Pro 4
  • Surface Book
  • Surface Studio
  • Surface Pro Model 1796
  • Surface Laptop
  • Surface Pro with LTE Advanced
  • Surface Book 2

The updates will be available for the above devices running Windows 10 Creators Update (OS version 15063) and Windows 10 Fall Creators Update (OS version 16299). You will be able to receive these updates through Windows Update or by visiting the Microsoft Download Center.

Read full guidance for Surface Devices here: Surface Guidance for Customers and Partners: Protect your devices against the recent chip-related security vulnerability

Guidance for Azure

Microsoft has already deployed mitigations across the majority of our cloud services and is accelerating efforts to complete the remainder.

However, I always recommend that you also patch your operating systems and applications to be protected against other vulnerabilities.

Impact to Enterprise Cloud Services

Microsoft is not aware of any attacks on the Microsoft Cloud customers which leverage these types of vulnerabilities. Microsoft employs a variety of detection capabilities to quickly respond to any malicious activity in our enterprise cloud services.

Most of the Azure infrastructure has already received mitigations against this class of vulnerability. An accelerated reboot is occurring for any remaining hosts. Customers can check the Azure Portal for additional details.

All other enterprise cloud services such as Office 365, Dynamics 365, and Enterprise Mobility + Security have mitigations against these types of vulnerabilities. Microsoft engineering is continuing to perform analysis across the environments to confirm further protection.

Read full guidance for Microsoft Azure here: Microsoft Cloud Protections Against Speculative Execution Side-Channel Vulnerabilities

Guidance for Azure Stack

Azure Stack customers should take the following actions to help protect the Azure Stack infrastructure against the vulnerabilities:

  1. Apply Azure Stack 1712 update. See the Azure Stack 1712 update release notes for instructions about how to apply this update to your Azure Stack integrated system.
  2. Install firmware updates from your Azure Stack OEM vendor after the Azure Stack 1712 update installation is completed. Refer to your OEM vendor website to download and apply the updates.
  3. Some variations of these vulnerabilities apply also to the virtual machines (VMs) that are running in the tenant space. Customers should continue to apply security best practices for their VM images, and apply all available operating system updates to the VM images that are running on Azure Stack. Contact the vendor of your operating systems for updates and instructions, as necessary. For Windows VM customers, guidance has now been published and is available in this Security Update Guide.

Read full guidance for Microsoft Azure Stack here: Azure Stack guidance to protect against the speculative execution side-channel vulnerabilities

Guidance for SQL Server

The following versions of Microsoft SQL Server are impacted by this issue when running on x86 and x64 processor systems:

  • SQL Server 2008
  • SQL Server 2008 R2
  • SQL Server 2012
  • SQL Server 2014
  • SQL Server 2016
  • SQL Server 2017

IA64-based versions of SQL Server 2008 are not believed to be affected.

Microsoft made a list of different SQL Server scenarios depending on the environment that SQL Server is running in and what functionality is being used. Microsoft recommends that you deploy fixes by using normal procedures to validate new binaries before deploying them to production environments.

You can finde the list for scenarios and recommendations here: SQL Server guidance to protect against speculative execution side-channel vulnerabilities

There is also a list of updates for SQL Server available:

 

  • 4057122 Description of the security update for SQL Server 2017 GDR: January 3, 2018
  • 4058562 Description of the security update for SQL Server 2017 CU3 RTM: January 3, 2018
  • 4058561 Description of the security update for SQL Server 2016 CU7 SP1: January 3, 2018
  • 4057118 Description of the security update for SQL Server 2016 GDR SP1: January 3, 2018
  • 4058559 Description of the security update for SQL Server 2016 CU: January 6, 2018
  • 4058560 Description of the security update for SQL Server 2016 GDR: January 6, 2018
  • 4057114 Description of the security update for SQL Server 2008 SP4 GDR: January 6, 2018
  • 4057113 Description of the security update for SQL Server 2008 SP3 R2 GDR: January 6, 2018

Read the full guidance for SQL Server here: SQL Server guidance to protect against speculative execution side-channel vulnerabilities

Verifying protections again speculative execution side-channel vulnerabilities

The Microsoft Security Response Center released a PowerShell Module on the PowerShell Gallery called SpeculationControl, which verifies if your system is protected or not.

You can find more here: Use PowerShell to verifying protections again peculative execution side-channel vulnerabilities CVE-2017-5754 (Meltdown) and CVE-2017-5715 (Spectre)

 

More information on how to mitigate speculative execution side-channel vulnerabilities can be found here: ADV180002 | Guidance to mitigate speculative execution side-channel vulnerabilities



Windows SpeculationControl PowerShell

Use PowerShell to verifying protections again speculative execution side-channel vulnerabilities CVE-2017-5754 (Meltdown) and CVE-2017-5715 (Spectre)

As you might have seen in the last couple of days, there are huge news about some security bugs in CPUs from different vendors (not just intel). The Microsoft Security Response Center released a PowerShell Module on the PowerShell Gallery called SpeculationControl, which verifies if your system is protected or not.

Microsoft is aware of a new publicly disclosed class of vulnerabilities that are referred to as “speculative execution side-channel attacks” that affect many modern processors and operating systems, including chipsets from Intel, AMD, and ARM.

Note This issue also affects other systems, such as Android, Chrome, iOS, and MacOS, so we advise customers to seek guidance from those vendors.

Microsoft has released several updates to help mitigate these vulnerabilities. We have also taken action to secure our cloud services. See the following sections for more information.

Microsoft has not yet received any information to indicate that these vulnerabilities have been used to attack customers. Microsoft continues working closely with industry partners including chip makers, hardware OEMs, and app vendors to protect customers. To get all available protections, hardware/firmware and software updates are required. This includes microcode from device OEMs and, in some cases, updates to antivirus software as well.

Enabled protections will show in the output as “True” like in this screenshot here

Windows SpeculationControl PowerShell

So make sure you patch your systems, for Windows and Windows Server are already patches available and the Surface Familiy already got some firmware updates.

Also check out Mike F Robbins (Microsoft MVP) how he explains how to use the SpeculationControl PowerShell module on remote machines.



Tar and Curl on Windows 10

Today Microsoft released Windows 10 Insider Preview Build 17063 which includes a lot of great new features like Timeline, Activities, Microsoft Edge, Windows Subsystem for Linux improvements and much more. But Microsoft also included something for IT Pros and Developers. After the OpenSSH client and the OpenSSH server. Microsoft brings two new command-line tools for the Windows toolchain: curl and bsdtar. These tools are very well known tools in the open source world. Including them in Windows should make Windows even a better development platform.

 

Tar on Windows 10
Tar: A command line tool that allows a user to extract files and create archives. Outside of PowerShell or the installation of third party software, there was no way to extract a file from cmd.exe. We’re correcting this behavior 🙂 The implementation we’re shipping in Windows uses libarchive.

curl on Windows 10

Curl: Another command line tool that allows for transferring of files to and from servers (so you can, say, now download a file from the internet).

Why this, so first of all you have PowerShell which has similar functionality, but PowerShell is not always available (Think about Nano Server container images where you have not the Full .Net Framework available). Secondly Developers which come from other operating systems are already familiar with these tools and they can use, as they would on their “old” operating system.

If you want to know more, check out Craig Wihite’s (Microsoft) blog post: Tar and Curl Come to Windows!

As mentioned this is included in the Windows 10 Insider Preview Build 17063 and should ship to production customers in the next Windows 10 release, which might be Windows 10 (1803).



Windows SSH on WSL

Install and Configure OpenSSH Server on Windows 10 and Windows Server 1709

A couple of weeks ago I already wrote about how OpenSSH is now available on Windows 10. In this blog post I will cover how to install and configure OpenSSH Server on Windows 10 and Windows Server 1709.

Today, OpenSSH Client and Server on Windows are still in Beta, so they should only be used in secure test environments and not in production.

First you have to install the OpenSSH feature on your Windows machine. Remember that it needs to be the Windows 10 Fall Creators Update (1709) or Windows Server version 1709 or higher.

Windows OpenSSH Server

On Windows 10 you can also use the UI to install it.

Windows OpenSSH Server Folder

After the installation you can find the OpenSSH Server files and some more configuration options under C:\Windows\System32\OpenSSH

Now you need to configure the OpenSSH Server (sshd)

To enable authentication into an SSH server on Windows, you first have to generate host keys and repair the ACL on the host keys.

Configure OpenSSH Server on Windows

Windows SSH on WSL

Now you should be able to connect to the Windows Machine using SSH for an SSH client. Of course this can be the OpenSSH client or the SSH client which comes with the Windows Subsystem for Linux on Windows 10.

Azure Network Security Group SSH

If you are running OpenSSH Server on a Windows 10 or Windows Server 1709 virtual machine in Microsoft Azure, don’t forget to also configure the Network Security Group (NSG) to allow SSH inbound access on port 22.

Also check out how you can do SSH from PowerShell: Using SSH with PowerShell



Surface Precisiaon Mouse Box

Microsoft Surface Precision Mouse Review

Last week I got the Microsoft Surface Precision Mouse delivered. The Surface Precision Mouse will become the replacement mouse for my Microsoft Sculpt Mouse, which I used for the last couple of years. Now I want to give you some impressions about the Surface Precision Mouse, since I am very happy and very surprised about the feature set.

Surface Precision Mouse

First of all the Microsoft Surface Precision Mouse feels awesome, very high quality and it is very comfortable in your hand. It feels very precise and you get very quickly used to it.

Now let me write about some extra features you might didn’t know about. You first get a button to configure the scroll wheel in two different speeds, one feels very light and fast and the other one is slower and is more resistant, so you can choose what you like more and switch between them, depending on your task.

Microsoft Surface Percision Mouse Settings

Of course you get some extra buttons which you can customize with different shortcuts, for example to open the Windows 10 Tasks View or other applications. You can also customize the buttons depending on the application you are working with.

Surface Precision Mouse Bottom

By already having the perfect mouse, in terms of feeling, comfort, precision and customizability, you get a really cool extra feature. The Surface Precision Mouse gives you more multi-tasking power by allowing you to work seamlessly across up to three computers, supports both Bluetooth and wired USB connections. You can pair your Surface Precision Mouse with three different devices and you can manually switch between them with the button on the bottom of the mouse, or you can use something called Smart Switch.

Microsoft Surface Percision Mouse Smart Switch

Smart Switch on the Surface Precision Mouse can be enabled by using the Microsoft Mouse and Keyboard Center. It allows you to setup the workplace layout in the app and now you can move the cursor to the border of the screen and the mouse will seamlessly switch to the other device. So if you are working on your desktop and you have your notebook right next to it, you can easily move the mouse from one device to the other.

Overall I am super happy with the new device!

 

Tech Specs

The mouse also works with Windows 7, Windows 10, Windows 8.1 and macOS devices as long as they support Bluetooth 4.0 or higher.

 
Interface USB 2.1, Bluetooth® Low Energy 4.0/4.1/4.2 Dimensions 4.8 x 3.05 x 1.7 (122.6 mm x 77.6 mm x 43.3 mm)
Wireless Frequency 2.4GHz frequency range Weight 4.76 ounces (135 grams) including rechargeable batteries
Buttons 6 buttons, including right and left click and scroll wheel button Battery Rechargeable lithium ion battery (included)
Design Ergonomic design with side grips Battery Life Up to 3 months
Scrolling Smooth or magnetic detent customizable horizontal and vertical scrolling1 Color Gray