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    Microsoft Azure

Tag: Server Management Tools

Hyper-V Manager ins Azure Server Management Tools SMT

Manage Hyper-V from Azure Server Management Tools

Microsoft released an updated to the Azure Server Management Tools (SMT) and this improves some of the existing tools such as File Explorer and Device Manager. But the big announcement here is, that you now can manage your Hyper-V Server and Virtual Machines directly from Microsoft Azure from where ever you are. This is one of the great examples of using cloud solutions to extend your on premise environment, By using Management as a Service you basically don’t need to updated anything, you just got this new feature available in the Azure portal and you can start using it.

In this update to the Server Management Tools, Microsoft supports the following VM management functionality:

  • Start/Shutdown/Turn off/Pause/Resume
  • Save State/Delete Saved State
  • Take/Apply & rename checkpoints

You can see the Virtual Machines on which are running on the Hyper-V server

Hyper-V Manager in Azure SMT

You can also do basic management of checkpoints

Hyper-V VM in Azure SMT

If you want to know more about the Server Management Tools (SMT) check out my blog post: Manage Nano Server and Windows Server from Azure using Remote Server Management Tools

 



VCNRW Nano Server and Container

Nano Server – The future of Windows Server – Just enough OS

Finally, Microsoft released Windows Server 2016 and with Windows Server 2016 we also get the first version of Nano Server. I had the opportunity to speak on several different events and conferences about Nano Server, so I tried to create a quick summary of my presentation in this blog post.

Nano Server installation option Just enough OS

Nano Server - Just enough OS

Nano Server is a redesign version of Windows Server which is very lightweight, very small footprint and fully remote managed and it is designed to solve some of the datacenter challenges we have today. Nano Server is a headless, 64-bit only deployment option of Windows Server. Microsoft basically removed all components from the base image. Roles and feature are not directly included in the base image and they have to be added while creating a new Nano Server Image or online using PowerShell Package Management. Not even the drivers are included in the base image, since you don’t want the physical drivers in a virtual machines, and you don’t want the virtual drivers on a physical machine This is also the reason why Nano Server does not show up during the installation dialog when you boot the Windows Server 2016 ISO file.

Nano Server Key Scenarios

The first version of Nano Server is designed for the following key scenarios:

  1. Born-in-the-cloud applications – support for multiple programming languages and runtimes. (e.g. ASP.NET Core, C#, Java, Node.js, Python, etc.) running in containers, virtual machines, or on physical servers.
  2. Microsoft Cloud Platform infrastructure – support for compute clusters running Hyper-V and storage clusters running Scale-out File Server and Storage Spaces Direct.
  3. But Microsoft also added some other roles like DNS and IIS to the Nano Server and we can expect more roles and features in the future.

In this version Nano Server will of course not replace Windows Server Core and Windows Server (Full or Server with Desktop Experience), but it will be definitely be they way going forward.

Nano Server Footprint

Nano Server has a very small foot print, The default WIM file has a size around 170 MB and if you create a Nano Server VHD or VHDX file it can be only around 400 MB in size. If you add more roles, features and drivers the size of the image gets bigger, but even if you add more stuff the size will be around 800 MB for an Hyper-V server including the Hyper-V role, Failover Clustering Feature, DCB feature, Physical OEM drivers and additional network adapter and storage controller drivers. If you compare Nano Server to Windows Server you can see some of the following changes:

  • 93 percent lower VHD size
  • 92 percent fewer critical bulletins
  • 80 percent fewer reboots

Nano Server Servicing Improvements

Nano Server Servicing Improvments

Nano Server Deployment Improvements

Nano Server Deployment Improvments

This not only reduced deployment time and gives you some operational improvements, it also reduces the attack surface by a lot and this is a huge security improvement.

To achieve these results, Microsoft removed some parts of Windows Server such as:

  • GUI stack
  • 32 bit support (WOW64)
  • MSI support
  • RDP
  • Some default Server Core components
  • Basic OEM Drivers
  • and more

Nano Server Management

By removing the User Interface stack, Microsoft made this server to a true headless server, without any login screen or RDP support. By removing the Graphic User Interface, Windows Administrator have to learn new ways how they manage servers, or better use existing ways to manage a Nano Server environment. The answer is simple and is the best practice for managing servers for a long time called Remote Management. Nano Server will offer some advanced remote Management features such as:

  • WMI
  • PowerShell Remoting
  • PowerShell Direct
  • PowerShell Desired State Configuration
  • RSAT Tools (Server Manager, Hyper-V Manager, Failover Cluster Manager, …)
  • System Center and other Management tools
  • Server Management Tools (Azure Web-based management tools to replace local inbox management tools)

With that, existing Remote Management Tools, such as Server Manager and other RSAT tools, will continue to work. But Microsoft also improved PowerShell Remoting and introduces the Azure Serivce for Server Management Tools.

Server Management Tools

Microsoft Azure Server Management Tools Topology

This service allows you to manage your servers directly from Azure using a web-based HTML5 portal. I personally think that this could also replace Server Manager and allows you to easily manage non-GUI servers such as Windows Server Core and Nano Server.

Azure Remote Server Management Nano Server

If you want to know more about the Sever Management Tools, check out my blog post: Manage Nano Server and Windows Server from Azure using Remote Server Management Tools

The Server Management Tools do not only support Nano Server, they also support Windows Server 2016, Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows Server 2012 with WMF 5.0 and higher.

Remote Manage Nano Server with PowerShell

Nano Server PowerShell Remoting

The simplest way to manage Nano Server is by using PowerShell Remoting using for exmaple the following command.

If you are directly on a Hyper-V Server you can also use PowerShell Direct which allows you to directly connect to a Virtual Machine using the Hyper-V VMBus.

If you want to know more about Managing Nano Server check out the following blog posts How to Remote Manage your Nano Server using PowerShell or Hyper-V PowerShell Direct.

Manage Nano Server using System Center

Nano Server can also be managed using System Center Virtual Machine Manager and System Center Operations Manager. With SCVMM you can deploy new Hyper-V and Storage Spaces Direct hosts as well as Virtual Machines.

Deploy Nano Server

To deploy Nano Server as a virtual machine or as a physical host you have to create a new Nano Server Image. For this you have basically have two option. The first one is using the built in Nano Server Image Generator PowerShell module and the second option is the Nano Server Image Builder UI wizard.

Nano Server Image Generator PowerShell module

New-NanoServerImage

The Nano Server Image Generator PowerShell module allows you to create new Nano Server Images. You can find this on the Windows Server 2016 media in the Nano Server folder. Here is a quick example how to create a new VHDX using the PowerShell module.

Nano Server Image Builder

Nano Server Image Builder

The Nano Server Image Builder is a UI based wizard to create Nano Server Images in VHDX, VHD, WIM or ISO to install Nano Server on all possible systems.

The Nano Server Image Builder can help you with the following tasks:

  • Graphical UI to create Nano Server Images
  • Adding drivers
  • Choose Windows Server Edition
  • Adding roles and features
  • Adding drivers
  • Adding updates
  • Configuration of Network Settings
  • Configuration of Domain settings
  • Set Remoting Options
  • Create an ISO file to boot from DVD or BMC (remote connection like HP ILO)

First download and install the Windows Assessment and Deployment Kit (ADK) and the Nano Server Image Builder.

If you need more information about deploying Nano Server check my blog post about Create a Nano Server using the Nano Server Image Builder and How to create a Nano Server Image using PowerShell.

Nano Server Packages

Nano Server Packages

Roles, Features and Drivers live outside of the basic Nano Server Image have to be added while creating the Nano Server Image or after that using PowerShell Package Management.

You can find and install Windows Packages from the online package repository by using the NanoServerPackage provider of PackageManagement (OneGet) PowerShell module.

Troubleshooting Nano Server

Nano Server Recovery Console

Hyper-V Nano Server Console

When you boot Nano Server you can not really login to Nano Server and browse the file system. What you can do is login to the Nano Server Recovery Console which allows you to do some basic tasks:

  • Shows computer info like Name, IP Configuration, OS Version and more
  • Reset Networking to DHCP
  • Reset basic Windows Firewall rules
  • If the Server is a Hyper-V Server you can see the VM running on the system and remove the Virtual Switch

Sysinternals for Nano Server

Sysinternals for Nano Server

There is also a Sysinternals version for Nano Server.

Nano Server over a serial port with Emergency Management Services

Emergency Management Services (EMS) lets you perform basic troubleshooting, get network status, and open console sessions (including CMD/PowerShell) by using a terminal emulator over a serial port. This replaces the need for a keyboard and monitor to troubleshoot a server.

You can include this using the following cmdlets

Nano Server Servicing

Nano Server Servicing

Windows Server are usually from the Long Term Servicing Branch and have 5 + 5 years of servicing and only get security and quality fixes, no new features. In Windows Server 2016 Server Core and Server with Desktop Experience follow this traditional servicing model. Nano Server on the other hand will be in a new servicing branch called Current Branch for Business (CBB).

  • Nano Server will not have an LTSB with Windows Server 2016 and therefore not have 5+5 years of servicing
  • Nano Server installations will have to move forward to future CBB releases of Nano Server to continue to be serviced
  • Licensing Nano Server will require Software Assurance (SA)
  • Installation of new CBBs are always controlled by administrators, no forced upgrades

Nano Server Key Wins

  • Easy and fast to deploy
  • Lightweight
  • Easily integrates with our automated approach
  • Reduces attack surface
  • Works with existing deployment tools (WDS, SCVMM, SCCM and boot from VHDX)
  • Reduces operational overhead
  • Highly stable
  • Delivers on scale and performance

Conclusion

In my opinion the effort Microsoft does with Nano Server really makes sense and will help Service Providers as well as Enterprise companies to deploy clouds even faster, more secure, more efficient and with less management overhead. Of course it is still early and Nano Server may not fit every case and scenario today, but definitely in the future.

 

 

 



Install Updates on Nano Server

How to install Updates on Nano Server

Microsoft just released Windows Server 2016, which comes with a new deployment option called Nano Server. Nano Server is a very small version of Windows Server which addresses a lot of different issues. Now after the release of Windows Server 2016 Microsoft is releasing the first updates for Windows Server 2016 and Nano Server.

Microsoft released the first Cumulative Update for Windows Server 2016 was released on September 26, 2016 (KB3192366) and the prerequisite for this and future Cumulative Update is the Servicing Stack Update for Windows 10 Version 1607 (KB3176939).

Download

You can download the .msu updates from the Windows Server Catalog:

Folder Structure

Just to make it easier for you, here is the folder structure I use:

  • C:\NanoServer – The Folder where I put all my files and folders to create and manage NanoServer. I copied the NanoServerImageGenerator PowerShell module to this folder
    Nano Server Folder
  • C:\NanoServer\Files – Copied all the files from the Windows Server 2016 ISO file
    Nano Server ISO Folder
  • C:\NanoServer\Updates – Downloaded .msu files and extracted .cab files
    Nano Server Update Folder
  • C:\NanoServer\Images – Created Nano Server Images

Extract the .cab files from the .msu file

For the most update scenarios you will need the .cab update package , which is included in the .msu file. To extract the .cab file from the .msu file you can use the expand command line utility.

In my case renamed the .msu files to for easier identification and copied both files to C:\NanoServer\Updates.

nano Server Epxand MSU Update Files

Integrate Updates into a new Nano Server Image

If you create a new Nano Server Image you can simply include the latest updates and cumulative updates while building the image. With that you have a new fresh NanoServer Image which will be fully patched after the first boot.

New Nano Server Image with Updates

Integrate Updates into an existing Nano Server Image

If you already have an existing Nano Server Image you can also updates this one.

Add Updates to Nano Server Image

Integrate Updates into an VHD or VHDX (offline)

If you have VHD or VHDX templates and you want to integrate new updates you can do this as well using the DISM PowerShell module. You can also update existing Virtual Machines with this if you shutdown the VM (Offline Patching).

Install Updates on a running Nano Server (online)

If you have a running Nano Server in a virtual machine or on a physical host you can also use the downloaded .cap files and the DISM PowerShell module to install the patches on a Nano Server. For that you will need to use PowerShell remoting to connect to the Nano Server.

Install Updates on Nano Server

If the Nano Server is running inside a VM, you can also use PowerShell Direct to connect directly to the Virtual Machine from the Hyper-V host.

Download and Install Updates on a running Nano Server from Windows Update (online from Windows Update)

If you have a running Nano Server VM or physical host, you can use the Windows Update WMI provider to download and install the update from Microsoft Update.

Download and Install Updates on a running Nano Server from Windows Update using the Azure Remote Server Management Tools

You can also use a graphical UI to update Nano Server directly from the Remote Server Management Tools.

Install Updates on Nano Server from Server Management Tools SMT

You can get more information about Updating Nano Server on this Microsoft blog post.

 

 

 

 



Azure Remote Server Management Nano Server

Manage Nano Server and Windows Server from Azure using Remote Server Management Tools

Today Microsoft announced the preview of the Remote Server Management Tools hosted in Azure, written by Kriti Jindal, a program manager on the Server management tools team. This service allows you to manage your servers directly from Azure using a web-based HTML5 portal. I personally think that this could replace Server Manager and allows you to easily manage non-GUI servers such as Windows Server Core and Nano Server. This is the first public preview of the Remote Server Management Tools and it limited right now to manage Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview server, hosted on-prem or in Microsoft Azure. The Remote Server Management Tools today include the following features:

  • View and change system configuration
  • View performance across various resources and manage processes and services
  • Manage devices attached to the server
  • View event logs
  • View the list of installed roles and features
  • Use a PowerShell console to manage and automate

Overview

To remotely manage your Windows Server from Azure, you have to deploy a Remote Server Management Gateway into your network. This can be a Windows Server 2012 R2 Server running the WMF 5.0 (Windows Management Framework 5.0) or Windows Server 2016 with no additional preparation. You also need a Microsoft Azure subscription and an account.

Microsoft Azure Server Management Tools Topology

The gateway will handle the connection to Azure, so the Remote Server Management Gateway needs connection to the internet. The managed servers do not need a direct connection to the internet, the gateway will connect to the managed server. With that, the gateway need connection to the sever which will be managed by Azure.

Setup Server Management Tools

Well to set this up some steps are required, first create a new server for the Remote Server Management Gateway. In my case I installed a new Windows Server 2016 virtual machine. I made sure I could connect to the internet and it has the lastest updates installed.

Microsoft Azure Server Management Tools New Connection

After I created the virtual machine I logged in to the Azure portal and added a new Server Management Tools Connection. You can search “Server management tools” in Marketplace or navigate to it: Marketplace -> Management -> More -> Server management tools. This will also create the first Server Management Tools Gateway for your connection.

Microsoft Azure Server Management Tools Connection

After the connection is created you can see the connection and but you will get the information that the gateway is not ready. As the next step you will configure the gateway on the prepared server.

Microsoft Azure Server Management Tools Gateway

Under the Server Management Tools Gateway blade you can find a setup for the gateway which will generate a custom install package for your gateway. You can copy this link to the server and download this package and install it.

  1. Allow gateway updates to be installed automatically (recommended), or choose to install updates manually. You may change this later under gateway settings.
  2. Click the below to generate a customized gateway deployment package link.
  3. Use the generated link to download the gateway deployment package now, or copy the link URL to download the package later from the machine on which you intend to install the package.
  4. From the machine that you want to designate as the gateway, unzip the package and run GatewayService.MSI.
  5. Once the gateway installation completes, return to the Microsoft Azure portal and reopen your Server management tools connection.
  6. You should now be able to manage your Windows Server 2016 machine if the Microsoft Azure portal can reach it through the gateway.

Azure Remote Server Management Gateway Installer

After you have installed the Remote Server Management Gateway package on your gateway server you can see the connection in the Azure portal.

Azure Remote Server Management Nano Server

Now you start remote manage your server. As mentioned before, this is really handy if you want to manage Server Core or Nano Server.

Additional Stuff:

There are some additions for the configuration if you want to manage servers in a workgroup environment:

In order to manage workgroup machines (e.g. non-domain-joined Nano Servers), run this command as an administrator on the Server management tools gateway machine:

winrm set winrm/config/client @{ TrustedHosts=”<<IP address>>” }

When creating a Server management tools connection to the workgroup machine, use the machine’s IP address as the computer name.

Additional connectivity requirements

If you wish to connect using the local Administrator account, you will need to enable this policy on the target machine by running the following command in an administrator session on the target machine:

REG ADD HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\System /v LocalAccountTokenFilterPolicy /t REG_DWORD /d 1

If you wish to connect to a workgroup machine which is not on the same subnet as the gateway, run the following command in an administrator session on the target machine:

NETSH advfirewall firewall add rule name=”WinRM 5985″ protocol=TCP dir=in localport=5985 action=allow

Remote Management Server Tools Features

Azure Remote Server Management PowerShell

As mentioned the Remote Management Server Tools bring some really cool web-based management features. One of my favorites is the web-based PowerShell console.

  • Device Manager
  • PowerShell Console
  • Computer Configuration (Name, Domain,…)
  • Network Configuration
  • Task Manager
  • Process
  • Registry Editor
  • Roles and Features
  • Services
  • Local Administrators
  • Updates Management (coming soon)
  • Shutdown / Restart

More Information