Category: Windows Server 2019

Hyper-V Server 2019 Install now

How to Install Hyper-V Server 2019

A couple of weeks ago Microsoft released the installation media, and you can download Hyper-V Server 2019 right now. In this blog post, I am going to show you how to install and configure Hyper-V Server 2019 step by step. This should especially help beginners with Hyper-V Server 2019. Hyper-V Server 2019 ships only a core option, so there won’t be desktop experience version of Hyper-V Server like you would have with Windows Server 2019.

Hyper-V Server 2019 Requirements

Hyper-V has specific hardware requirements to run virtualization in a secure and performant way.

  • 64-bit processor with second-level address translation (SLAT)
  • Minimum of 4GB of RAM. You will need more RAM for virtual machines on the Hyper-V Server.
  • Virtualization features and support needs to be enabled in BIOS or UEFI
    • Hardware-assisted virtualization – Intel Virtualization Technology (Intel VT) or AMD Virtualization (AMD-V) technology.
    • Hardware-enforced Data Execution Prevention (DEP)  Intel XD bit (execute disable bit) or AMD NX bit (no execute bit).

Specific features, like Discrete device assignment (DDA) or Shielded Virtual Machines, will also have other hardware requirements. You can find more about the Hyper-V Server 2019 requirements on Microsoft Docs.

Download ISO

You can download Hyper-V Server directly from the Microsoft evaluation center. This SKU does not require a license key, and it also doesn’t expire. It is a fully supported version of Hyper-V for free. However, if you run workloads like Windows Server, Windows 10, or other operating systems on top of it, they need to be correctly licensed.

Install Hyper-V Server 2019

After you have download the ISO file, you will need to install this on your machine. There are multiple options to do this:

You can also follow this guide to add drivers to a Windows Server Image; this also works for Hyper-V Server.

Now you can boot your server with the Hyper-V installation media. This will start the step by step installation. Select the language and region settings you want to use for your Hyper-V Server.

Install Hyper-V Server 2019

Install Hyper-V Server 2019



Migrate Hyper-V VMs to Azure using Azure Migrate

Assess and Migrate Hyper-V VMs with Azure Migrate

Today, the Azure Migrate team launched an update to the Azure Migrate service, which can help you discover, assess, and migrate applications, infrastructure, and data from your on-prem environment to Microsoft Azure. This is excellent timing since we all know that Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 are soon out of support and you get free extended security updates if you migrate your VMs to Azure. With Azure Migrate, you can now centrally track the progress of your migration journey across multiple thrid-party and Microsoft tools. In addition, Azure Migrate can now assess and migrate your Hyper-V virtual machines (VMs).

With the latest release of Azure Migrate you can now:

  • Extensible approach with choice across Microsoft and popular ISV assessment and migration tools
  • Integrated experience for discovery, assessment, and migration with end-to-end progress tracking for servers and databases
  • Server Assessment and Server Migration for large-scale VMware, Hyper-V, and physical server migrations
  • Database Assessment and Database Migration across various database targets including Azure SQL Database and Managed Instance

You can find more about the Azure Migrate capabilities on Microsoft Docs. For more information on Azure Migration, check out my blog post about Azure Migration on the Nigel Frank International blog. In this post, I am going to show you how you can step-by-step assess and migrate Hyper-V VMs to Azure using Azure Migrate.

Preparation

First, you need to prepare your Azure to set the right permissions and prepare the on-premises Hyper-V hosts and VMs for server assessment and migration. You can find more about the details for permissions and host preparations on Microsoft Docs.

Next, you will need to create a new Migration project for servers. Click on Asses and migrate servers.

Azure Portal Azure Migrate

Azure Portal Azure Migrate

Now you will need to add the tools you want to use for the assessment as well as for the migration, click on “add tools”.

Getting started

Getting started

You will need to create a new Azure Migrate project. Enter the details for your subscription, resource group, and a name for the project. You will also need to choose a region where your project is going to be deployed. No worries, this will only store the assessment data, you can still select another region for the migration.



PowerShell 7 Installer

How to Install and Update PowerShell 7

Currently, you can install the cross-platform version PowerShell Core 6 on Linux, macOS, and Windows. Early April the PowerShell team announced the next release called PowerShell 7. PowerShell 7 is built on .NET Core 3 and brings back many APIs required by modules built on .NET Framework so that they work with .NET Core runtime. While PowerShell Core 6 was focusing on bringing cross-platform compatibility, PowerShell 7 will focus on making it a viable replacement for Windows PowerShell 5.1 and bringing near parity with Windows PowerShell. Here is how you can install and update PowerShell 7 (preview) on Windows and Linux using a simple one-liner.

If you want to know more about the roadmap, check out Steves blog post.

One great example of how cross-platform PowerShell can work, check out my blog post: How to set up PowerShell SSH Remoting.

Install PowerShell 7 (Preview)

As mentioned PowerShell 7 is currently in preview. You can download and install it manually from GitHub. However, the easiest way to install it is to use the following one-liners created by Steve Lee (Microsoft Principal Software Engineer Manager in the PowerShell Team). You can also use the same one-liners with different parameters to install the current GA version of PowerShell 6.

If you are installing the PowerShell 7 Preview, this will be a side by side installation with PowerShell 6. You can use the pwsh-preview command to run version 7.

One-liner to install or update PowerShell 7 on Windows 10

Install and Update PowerShell 7

You can use this single command in Windows PowerShell to install PowerShell 7. The difference between the installation of version 6 versus version 7 is the -Preview flag.

iex "& { $(irm https://aka.ms/install-powershell.ps1) } -UseMSI -Preview"

There are additional switches to, for example, install daily builds of the latest PowerShell previews.

-Destination
The destination path to install PowerShell Core to.

-Daily
Install PowerShell Core from the daily build.
Note that the ‘PackageManagement’ module is required to install a daily package.

-Preview
Install the latest preview, which is currently version 7. This will

-UseMSI
Use the MSI installer.

-Quiet
The quiet command for the MSI installer.

-DoNotOverwrite
Do not overwrite the destination folder if it already exists.

-AddToPath
On Windows, add the absolute destination path to the ‘User’ scope environment variable ‘Path’;
On Linux, make the symlink ‘/usr/bin/pwsh’ points to “$Destination/pwsh”;
On MacOS, make the symlink ‘/usr/local/bin/pwsh’ points to “$Destination/pwsh”.

One-liner to install or update PowerShell 7 on Linux

Install PowerShell 7 on Linux

You can use this as a single command to install PowerShell 7 on Linux

wget https://aka.ms/install-powershell.sh; sudo bash install-powershell.sh -preview; rm install-powershell.sh

Depending on your distro you are using, this will register Microsoft’s pkg repos and install that package (deb or rpm).

You can also use the following switches:

-includeide
Installs VSCode and VSCode PowerShell extension (only relevant to machines with a desktop environment)

-interactivetesting
Do a quick launch test of VSCode (only applicable when used with -includeide)

-skip-sudo-check
Use sudo without verifying its availability (hard to accurately do on some distros)

-preview
Installs the latest preview release of PowerShell side-by-side with any existing production releases

To currently run the PowerShell Preview, you can run the following command:

pwsh-preview

After Installing

After you have installed PowerShell 7, also make sure to update PowerShellGet and the PackageManagement module.

Remember PowerShell 7 is still currently in preview, if you have any questions, please let me know in the comments.



PowerShell Get-WindowsImage Windows Server 2019 Editions

Add Drivers to a Windows Server 2019 ISO Image

In this blog article, I am going to show you how you can add drivers to a Windows Server 2019 ISO Image or WIM file using PowerShell and the DISM module. This will allow you to already have the latest drivers within the Windows Server installation image when you install Windows Server 2019. We will add drivers to a Windows Server 2019 WIM file (WIM stands for Windows Imaging Format), which then can be used to create a new ISO image or for example in Windows Deployment Services.

Preparation

Folder for adding drivers to Windows Server 2019

Folder for adding drivers to Windows Server 2019

First, you will need to create three new folders called Drivers, ISO, and Mount. In my example, I created these in C:\Images.

  • Drivers – This is the folder where you put all your extracted drivers, which you want to add to your Windows Server 2019 Image.
  • ISO – This is where you can extract the Windows Server 2019 ISO Image. Basically all the files on the ISO file.
  • Mount – This is an empty folder, which will be used to mount the WIM files.

You can now mount the ISO using Windows Explorer or the following PowerShell commands and copy the files to the ISO folder.

Mount ISO PowerShell

Mount ISO PowerShell

Mount-DiskImage -ImagePath C:\Temp\17763.379.190312-0539.rs5_release_svc_refresh_SERVER_EVAL_x64FRE_en-us.iso
Copy-Item D:\* C:\Image\ISO\ -Recurse

In your case, the ISO may be mounted on a different drive letter instead of my D: drive.

Add drivers to the Windows Server 2019 Image

First, you can check in which Windows editions you want to add the drivers. To check that you can use the following PowerShell command:

Get-WindowsImage -ImagePath C:\Image\ISO\sources\install.wim
PowerShell Get-WindowsImage Windows Server 2019 Editions

PowerShell Get-WindowsImage Windows Server 2019 Editions

The Get-WindowsImage cmdlet will show you the different editions included in the WIM file.

After we have seen the Index numbers, we can now mount the Windows Image our Mount folder. In my example, I use Image Index 3, which is the Windows Server 2019 Datacenter Core Edition. If you want to check which editions of Windows Server 2019 you should use, check out the Microsoft Docs.

Mount-WindowsImage -Path C:\Image\Mount -ImagePath C:\Image\ISO\sources\install.wim -Index 3
Mount-WindowsImage

Mount-WindowsImage

After the image is mounted you can now add the drivers to the Windows Server 2019 Image using the following command:

Add-WindowsDriver -Path C:\Image\Mount -Driver C:\Image\Drivers -Recurse
Add Drivers to Windows Server 2019 ISO Image

Add Drivers to Windows Server 2019 ISO Image

After you have added all the drivers to the image, you need to dismount the image and save it.

Dismount-WindowsImage -Path C:\Image\Mount -Save

We have now added the drivers to the Install image, and you should also add the drivers to your boot image if it is, for example, a network or storage controller driver you might need to install the server. To do this do the same steps to the C:\Image\ISO\sources\boot.wim.

Now you can use these WIM files with Windows Deployment services or create a USB drive to install Windows Server 2019. If you want to create an ISO file, you can use the oscdimg command-line tool. The oscdimg tool comes with the Windows Assessment and Deployment Kit (Windows ADK), which you can get here.

oscdimg -n -m -bc:\temp\ISO\boot\etfsboot.com C:\temp\ISO C:\temp\mynew.iso

I hope this post helps you to add drivers to your Windows Server image. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment.



Copy files to Azure VM using PowerShell Remoting

Copy Files to Azure VM using PowerShell Remoting

There are a couple of different cases you want to copy files to Azure virtual machines. To copy files to Azure VM, you can use PowerShell Remoting. This works with Windows and Linux virtual machines using Windows PowerShell 5.1 (Windows only) or PowerShell 6 (Windows and Linux). Check out my blog post at the ITOpsTalk.com about copying files from Windows to Linux using PowerShell Remoting.

Prepare your client machine

Prepare the client machine to create PowerShell Remote connections to a specific remote VM.

Set-Item WSMan:localhost\client\trustedhosts -value "AZUREVMIP"

You can also enable remoting to all machines by using an asterisk.

Set-Item WSMan:localhost\client\trustedhosts -value *

Copy Files to Windows Server Azure VM

If you want to copy files to an Azure VM running Windows Server, you have two options. If you are copying files from Windows to Windows, you can use Windows PowerShell Remoting; if you are copying files from Linux or macOS to Windows, you can use the cross-platform PowerShell 6 and PowerShell Remoting over SSH.

Using Windows PowerShell Remoting

To copy files from a Windows machine to a Windows Server running in Azure, you can use Windows PowerShell Remoting.

Prepare the host (Azure VM) to receive Windows PowerShell remote commands. The Enable-PSRemoting cmdlet configures the computer to receive Windows PowerShell remote commands that are sent by using the WS-Management technology.

Enable-PSRemoting -Force

Now you can create a new PowerShell Remoting session to the Azure VM.

$cred = Get-Credential
 
$s = New-PSSession -ComputerName "AZUREVMIPORNAME" -Credential $cred

After the session was successfully created, you can use the copy-item cmdlet with the -toSession parameter.

Copy-Item .\windows.txt C:\ -ToSession $s

Some important notes

  • You need to configure the Network Security Group for the Azure VM to allow port 5985 (HTTP) or 5986 (HTTPS)
  • You can use PowerShell Remoting over Public Internet or Private connectivity (VPN or Express Route). If you are using the Public Internet, I highly recommend that you use https. I also recommend that you use Just-in-time virtual machine access in Azure Security for public exposed ports.

Using PowerShell Core 6 PowerShell Remoting over SSH

If you are running PowerShell Core 6, you can use PowerShell Remoting over SSH. This gives you a simple connection and cross-platform support. First, you will need to install PowerShell 6. After that, you will need to configure and setup PowerShell SSH Remoting together with OpenSSH. You can follow my blog post to do this here: Setup PowerShell SSH Remoting in PowerShell 6

Now you can create a new PowerShell Remoting session to the Azure VM.

$s = New-PSSession -HostName "AZUREVMIPORNAME" -UserName

After the session was successfully created, you can use the copy-item cmdlet with the -toSession parameter.

Copy-Item .\windows.txt C:\ -ToSession $s

Some important notes

  • You need to configure the Network Security Group for the Azure VM to allow port 22 (SSH)
  • You can use PowerShell Remoting over Public Internet or Private connectivity (VPN or Express Route). Exposing the SSH port to the public internet maybe is not secure. If you still need to use a public SSH connection, I recommend that you use Just-in-time virtual machine access in Azure Security.

Copy Files to Linux Azure VM

Copy File Windows to Linux using PowerShell Remoting

If you want to copy files to a Linux VM running in Azure, you can make use of the cross-platform PowerShell capabilities of PowerShell 6, using PowerShell Remoting over SSH. As for the Windows virtual machines, you will need to install PowerShell 6. Next, you will need to configure and setup PowerShell SSH Remoting together with OpenSSH. You can follow my blog post to do this here: Setup PowerShell SSH Remoting in PowerShell 6

After installing and configuring PowerShell Remoting over SSH, you can create a new PowerShell Remoting session to the Azure VM.

$s = New-PSSession -HostName "AZUREVMIPORNAME" -UserName

After you successfully connected to your Azure VM, you can use the copy-item cmdlet with the -toSession parameter.

Copy-Item .\windows.txt /home/thomas -ToSession $s

I hope this gives you an overview about how you can copy files to Azure VMs using PowerShell Remoting. If you have any questions, let me know in the comments.



Nigel Frank Migrating and extending with Microsoft Azure

Article about Azure Migration on Nigel Frank International

This week my blog post on Azure Migration and Hybrid Cloud on the Nigel Frank International blog went live. The title of the article is, Migrating and extending your on-premises environment with Microsoft Azure. In that blog post, I what your advantages are by using the cloud and some of the different approaches to use Microsoft Azure. Before I then go deeper on different Azure scenarios and topics.

I cover a lot of different Azure options like:

Nigel Frank International

The public cloud is becoming more and more important for companies that want to stay agile and flexible to meet their business demands. But if a company decides to move to the public cloud, what are the best ways to migrate to Microsoft Azure? In this blog post, we’ll take a quick look at what services Microsoft offers to make your cloud migration easier.

It was fun to work with the team at Nigel Frank International and I hope you like the article.



Azure Bastion Windows VM

Azure Bastion – Private RDP and SSH access to Azure VMs

Azure Bastion is a new service which enables you to have private and fully managed RDP and SSH access to your Azure virtual machines. If you wanted to access your Azure virtual machines using RDP or SSH today, and you were not using a VPN connection, you had to assign a public IP address to the virtual machine. You were able to secure the connection using Azure Just in Time VM access in Azure Security Center. However, this had still some drawbacks. With Azure Bastion you get a private and fully managed service, which you deploy to your Virtual Network, which then allows you to access your VMs directly from the Azure portal using your browser over SSL.

Azure Bastion Architecture

Source: Microsoft Docs

Azure Bastion brings a couple of advantages

  • Removes requirement for a Remote Desktop (RDP) client on your local machine
  • Removes element for a local SSH client
  • No need for local RDP or SSH ports (handy when your company blocks it)
  • Uses secure SSL/TLS encryption
  • No need to assign public IP addresses to your Azure Virtual Machine
  • Works in basically any modern browser on any device (Windows, macOS, Linux, etc.)
  • Better hardening and more straightforward Network Security Group (NSG) management
  • Can remove the need for a Jumpbox

If you want to know more directly here is the link to the Azure Bastion announcement blog and the Microsoft Docs.

Public Preview

Azure Bastion is currently in public preview. The public preview is limited to the following Azure public regions:

  • West US
  • East US
  • West Europe
  • South Central US
  • Australia East
  • Japan East

To participate in this preview, you need to register. Use these steps to register for the preview:

Register-AzureRmProviderFeature -FeatureName AllowBastionHost -ProviderNamespace Microsoft.Network
 
Register-AzureRmResourceProvider -ProviderNamespace Microsoft.Network
 
Get-AzureRmProviderFeature -ProviderNamespace Microsoft.Network

To use the Azure Bastion service, you will also need to use the Azure Portal – Preview.

How to set up an Azure Bastion host for a private RDP and SSH access to Azure VMs

Create Azure Bastion Host

First, you will need to deploy Bastion Host in your virtual network (VNet). The Azure Bastion Host will need at least a /27 subnet.

AzureBastionSubnet

Access Azure virtual machines using Azure Bastion

Azure Bastion integrates natively in the Azure portal. The platform will automatically be detected if Bastion is deployed to the virtual network your virtual machine is in. To connect to a virtual machine, click on the connect button for the virtual machine. Now you can enter your username and password for the virtual machine.

Azure Portal connect to Linux VM SSH

This will now open up a web-based SSL RDP session in the Azure portal to the virtual machine. Again, there is no need to have a public IP address assigned to your virtual machine.

Private access to Azure Linux VM

 

Roadmap – more to come

As Yousef Khalidi (CVP Azure Networking) mentions in his preview announcement blog, the team will add more great capabilities, like Azure Active Directory and MFA support, as well as support for native RDP and SSH clients.

The Azure networking and compute team are doing more great work on creating a great Azure IaaS experience. I hope this gives you an overview of how you can get a private RDP or SSH access to your Azure VM. If you want to know more about the Azure Bastion service, check out the Microsoft Docs for more information. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment.